- the part of a drawing that appears to be in the distance or behind the most important part.
- the way in which the parts of something are arranged, especially the parts of a visual image.
- a design or plan showing the way things are arranged.
- the act or process of combining things to form a whole.
- the use of tonal differences, between the lightest and the darkest parts of the drawing.
- the degree of clarity of an image. It is related to the sharpness and degree of contrast in the image.
- the part of the drawing that appears nearest the viewer.
- a drawing quality with expression and movement. The idea of realism does not need to be a priority.
- the extent or relative size of something.
- the difference between light and dark shading in the drawing.
This links to highlights, shadows and the use of contrast.
Tissue paper is a thin, strong, translucent paper.
Some tissue paper is guaranteed not to bleed, and some is designed to bleed so that water can be applied and the colour will run onto surrounding surfaces.
Perspective is a method of graphically depicting three-dimensional objects and spatial relationships on a two-dimensional plane or on a plane that is shallower than the original (for example, in flat relief).
Perceptual methods of representing space and volume, which render them as seen at a particular time and from a fixed position and are characteristic of Chinese and most Western painting since the Renaissance, are in contrast to conceptual methods.
The chief ingredients of high quality ink according to these works are lampblack and glue. The finest lampblack is supposed to come from the burning of vegetable oils. In ancient times the best soot was made from burning of specially selected pines in an ink furnace that had inverted pottery jars over the smoke. These jars trapped the soot which was then removed with feather brushes. The soot was then mixed with glue, which could be made from horn or animal hides. According to the ink classic, the glue made from the horns of young deer was of the highest quality because of its purity. Good ink depended upon good glue, which gives the ink texture and life.
Chinese ink differs significantly from western ink in composition and also in it ability to stand the tests of time. It does not fade to the extent that western ink does when exposed to light and ancient pictures and calligraphy still retain their resilience after centuries of display. Chinese ink in ancient times was sold in solid inksticks or inkcakes, which were most frequently round or rectangular but also often shaped like a canoe. The ink was then ground on an inkstone and mixed with water for use. Ancient or antique inksticks are a collector’s item and are in demand by collectors and fetch high prices at auction. Museums in China and also those overseas collections with larger holdings often have examples of these inksticks, many of which date to the Sung, Yuan and Ming dynasties.
Considering the reverence traditionally educated Chinese scholars had for the brush and ink, their interest in the inkstone was even greater. The inkstone, which was used to grind the ink, was considered the very soul of a scholar’s library. These stones were selected with the greatest of care and were often decorated with elaborate symbols or literary phrases thought to encourage the scholar’s production of higher sentiments. While there are many exceptions, most inkstones are rectangular or rounded. Most are in fact made of stone but examples of pottery also exist.
Inkstones are an acquired taste like several other facets of Chinese culture. They are generally black or dark in color and do not draw the attention of the eye. Their beauty oftentimes is not so much in how they look but in how they work together with the ink and the paper and brush to achieve a particular color or texture. However, for those fortunate enough to have learned to master the brush, ink, inkstone and paper, “the four precious things of the library” are a passion. Holding an antique inkstone, it is hard not to feel the power that emanated from the previous painter or scholar who possessed this stone.
7 ideas I use in my sketchbook drawing when I am on location
I always stress the importance of my sketchbook to my creative practice - it is my constant companion whenever I travel, and it provides me the best solution to record the environment around me. I have always drawn in a sketchbook, its second nature to me, and it is one of the main things that students love to look through during my workshops.
The downloadable booklet will give you an insight into the creative strategies I use when I draw in my books and hopefully it will provide you with a substantial aid to share with your students.